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Sabtu, 14 November 2009

SCIENCE TEACHING style SUFISM (akhlaqi, amaly, philosophical)

As a science 'Sufism' or 'Sufism' and the road to learn how to how people (a Muslim) may be as close as possible to Allah SWT. Even textually, can not find the verse that commands bertasawuf and mystical word or phrase in the Quran, but there is implicit in the verses of the Quran which gives encouragement to practice part of the diartilkulasikan Sufism as a moral basis. ( In the process, thinking contiguity tawasuf experience with teaching cultural or religious values is not Islam, as the Greek civilization, Roman, Hindi, Egyptian, Jewish, and Christian. The interaction of doctrine and the value systems inevitably lead to the development of Sufism have thought in its application. ( At a meeting of culture and civilization of the Muslims introduced, transmit and promote aqidah and worship in the Islamic value system, otherwise non-Islamic civilization and the local culture local to transmit the philosophical thinking Muslims. So is the thought that at first Sufism is Amali or akhlaqi, or called 'Sufism akhlaqi', nowadays it bring Sufism to the pattern in the philosophical understanding of Sufism, which became known as 'philosophical Sufism'.

Amali as Sufism, Sufism Falsafi also generated figures and thoughts known in scientific study of Sufism. And efforts to approach God on the basis of 'closeness or distance' between man and God has given birth to two streams of Sufism, namely 'transcendentalism and mysticism mysticism mysticism union'. ( first flow shows that there is a dividing line or the difference between man and God, while the second flow say that the dividing line can be eliminated so that people can unite with God because there are similarities. ( In the second development stream is a lot of the characters bear, among others; al-Qusyairy, al-Junaid, al-Ghazali, al-Busthami, Ibn Arabi, Ibn Sab'in, Al Jilli, etc..

In the first understanding of Sufism and akhlaqi birth / Amali, and often also called Sunni Sufism. In the development of Sufism Sunni Sufism is also known as' dual 'of Sufism that has been modified and adapted to Asy'ariyah theology and Sharia (read' fiqh ahlussunah). (Http:// His characters include Al Junaid, Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Kalabazi, Al Qushayri, Al Ghazali, etc. Sunni Sufism Sufism seeks to reconcile with the laws since the mid-century 3 H / 9 M, which reached maturity and success at the thought of Abu Hamid al-Ghazali
Falsafi Sufism is a mystical concept of teaching that God knows (ma'rifat) ratio approach (philosophy) through to higher levels, not only knows God only (ma'rifatullah) but higher than that of wihdatul form (unity of existence) .

What is meant by philosophical mysticism of Sufism which is leaning on the integration between the intuition of the Sufis with their rational perspective, and uses philosophical themes from various sources to reveal the mystical. (Http:// could also say that the philosophical mysticism of Sufism which is rich with philosophical thoughts.

In Sufism philosophical approach is very different methods to mysticism or Sufism Sunni salafi. ( If Sufism Sunni or salafi more prominent to the practical aspects, while the prominent philosophical Sufism to the theoretical aspect that the concepts of philosophical Sufism to put forward the principle of ratio with philosophical approaches that are difficult to apply in daily life, especially for the laity, even virtually impossible, but still can be applied in reality.

While understanding the second group is philosophical Sufism, which is also called the 'monistic Mysticism', which integrates the teaching of Sufism is the mystical and rational vision of the expression and philosophical terminology. (Http:// this philosophical Sufism is generally based on wahdat draft form, al-Hulul and al-Ittihad. His characters include Abu Yazid al Busthami, Al-Hallaj, Ibn Arabi, Ibn Masarra, Al Jilli, Ibn Sab'in, Maqtul al-Suhrawardi, Mulla Sadra, etc..

Philosophical Sufism arose in several theories of mystical thought, such as; mortal, Baqa and Ittihad are the result of thought, Abu Yazid al Busthami, Hulul by Al Hallaj, ( vahdat Al Being attributed to Ibn Arabi, Insan al-Kamil was developed by Jilli, and Wihdatul al-Mutlaqah initiated by Ibn Sab'in thinking.

Philosophical Sufism appeared at about the seventh century AH 6 and 7, marked by the introduction of the characters are thinking philosopher and mystic of the Sufi philosopher as the philosophy of mysticism mingled with a variety of absorbing foreign philosophical thinking outside of Islam from the Greek, Persian, Indian, Egyptian, Jewish and Christianity without losing the authenticity of Islam as a religion.

before Al-Ghazali, scholars Qalam science scholars have taken a few ways of thinking reinforces the basic philosophy of science Qalam. their philosophy is only just learned to strengthen the science base that Qalam. ( but Ghazali at bahwasannya taking such a way is superficial. People are only interested in the tip end of philosophy, but people do not dig up the uratnya, philosophy does not have a godly stance, but just shake. ( He said: people who work are not trying to argue with the philosophy of going to see their science veins. The word says that the use of science Qalam is a difficult word and the word china. Clearly the opposite of resistance and damage. Ordinary people who had knowledge could not accept it, what else people who have high science. ( insaflah So I refused a school bahwasannya really sebelim in fahamkan and study it carefully, is like shooting a blind eye. Will koyaklah stepped foot in earnest, by reading philosophy books books books alone, without a teacher.

Ghazali satisfied Qalam uphold science as a science. He will not just blindly according to the science of artificial Qalam first person from her. Said the word philosophy is no longer solely in the eyes borrowed again to strengthen his position, ( but has been fixed and the science that made him a test stand. But even though he had won, because they with their business knowledge Qalam yelah upright as a science, but his own soul is not yet satisfied.

One of the general framework of philosophical Sufism is the mystical is not clear, has its own language and understand it requires the intellect and the power of the ordinary sense, and therefore not considered to be philosophical Sufism philosophy because it is based on intuition, (http://eyangresi313.blogspot . com /) is not purely because Sufism is expressed with the languages of philosophy that led to the establishment of schools of thought in the discussion.

The philosophical Sufi philosophy to recognize and deepen the flow of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Neoplatonism, the theory of emanation, Hermeticism and books other than the Eastern philosophy; Persian, Indian and Islamic philosophy, al-Farabi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Rushd and others, to be translated into in Arabic. ( Some of them are also affected by the thoughts Isma'ili, Batiniyah and Risala Risala-Ikhwan al-Safa '.

Since the beginning of thought known Sufi philosophical falsafatnya the target of criticism from the Islamic jurists, ( especially about the 'Alone al-form' and other ideas that are considered contrary to Islamic theology.

While the rejection of critical philosophical Sufism is also known to have enriched the breadth of Sufism in the contemporary study of till now still continue to be discussed comprehensively in academic discourse.

Developing ethical conceptions among zuhad or ascetic Sufism is the embryo, which states that God is not limited as opinion Mutakallimin (kalam pengamal science), but more than that. Essence of God is the source of all beauty and perfection, is also believed that God is the source of power, absolute power iradat. (Http:// God is the supreme creator, regulator of all events and the origin of all that exists. Because of such beliefs, the feeling of fear God more than they affect the sense of hope. Because of the strong fear of the wrath of God, all the devotion that they do aim for the safety of the ordeal. Impulses such attitudes affect their lives for the things of the profane and their relationship with God.

The emergence of the doctrine of God estetikal comes from the belief that God is all there, so between man and God is the reciprocal communication channels. ( God, as the Spirit Essence and Majesty, is also the Essence of the Most Beautiful, and the Source of all beauty. In accordance with one of human nature that loves beauty and beauty, the desire to love God is human, because God is the culmination of all beauty. Teologik estetikal concept is associated with al-Adawiyah Rabi'a via the doctrine of al-hubb or mahabbah. (Http:// Love God and do anything for him, is the motivation of love of the Sufis. In the soul there is no fear of punishment or wrath of God, no desire to enjoy the paradise that is only the desire for love and beauty of the Essence of God is eternal. (Http:// The Sufis devote themselves to God is due to welcome love and hope of His love. This doctrine continues to believe, that the creation of the universe is God's declaration of love is reflected in the form of empirical or as asthma mazhohir of God.

Since the time of Abu Yazid al-Busthami, incline to the opinion of the Sufi conception of 'unity of existence' or 'union mistisism', where the core teachings is that the phenomenon is only a shadow of true reality, namely God. One-atunya essential form is the form of God which is the basis and source of all things happened. (Http:// The world is a shadow whose existence depends on existence of God, so that reality is essentially a single form. While the nature of the visible range with no difference seen, only the relative differences. Essential difference is due to the limitations arising from the intellect. So the existence of diversity is nothing but the result of sensory perception and reasoning is limited intellect and the inability to understand the unity of Essence of all things. ( So they argued that this nature which included a man and a creature and / or other objects is the radiation from the 'divine nature'. In humans there are elements of the deity, because he is a divine radiance Nur (Light of God) as the radiance of the sun.
( If the two previous conceptions of God, the Sufis interpreted as a recognition of God makrifat through the heart and is a terminal that can achieve the highest human, then for the Sufi believers 'unity of being', human beings can still be through 'maqom ma'rifat' is 'union with God' or known by the term 'Ittihad'.

Sunni Sufis recognize that human intimacy with God, only within the limits of the Shari'a remains "distinguished man with God", on the grounds that human beings are human beings, ( while the Lord is God, who not be able to unite the two.

While the philosophical Sufi recognizes "human oneness with God", it is inner experience, spiritual journey and spiritual experiences are lived and experienced in conditions 'ecstasy' experienced 'alignment essence', not 'oneness of substance'.
The development of Sufism as a way and practice to realize the inner sanctity of their way to intimacy with God, also attract the attention of Muslim thinkers backgrounds and philosophical theology. ( Of this group performed a number of Sufi philosophy, or philosophers who sufis. Sufism concepts they called 'philosophical mysticism' that is rich with mystical ideas of philosophy. Philosophical teachings widely used in the analysis of Sufism is to understand 'emanation of Neo-Platonism' in all its variations.
In addition to Abu Yazid al-Busthami, philosophical or mystical figure that popular theosophy and as a pioneer is Ibn Masarrah (W.381H) from Andalusi (Spain) is based on the emanation theory argues that the path of Sufism human soul can be freed from the clutches of the flesh (matter) and obtain divine light (emanation) directly (ma'rifat true). ( Suhrawardi al-Maqtul (W.578 H) nationals Persia / Iran is the second person who combines theory and philosophy of Sufism departs from the emanation theory argues that through hard effort and really frees man soul from corporeal to trap and then can go back to first base or the angelic nature of nature Ilahiyat. Conception is then known by the name 'al-Israqiyah'.

Meanwhile, al-Hallaj (W.308 H) to formulate his theory of the doctrine of 'Hulul', ie a combination of human being with God or the creature rohaniyah with al-Khalik.
( And as the culmination of philosophical thinking is the conception of Sufism al-Wihdat al-Being which laid its foundations and attributed to Ibn 'Arabi (638 W. H).

Inspired by Ibn Arabi, Ibn Faridh (W.633 H) a Sufi poet from Egypt has also introduced the concept of Sufism ideas that are similar to al Wihdat al Being, called the "al-Wihdat al-Syuhud". (Http://eyangresi313. /)
al-Jilli (832 W. H) also expressed his opinion that the human effort through Ma'rifat to approach the Lord will be able to reach up to the nature of identity, the so-called 'insan kamil'.

In Shiite theology and patterned bermazhab Mu'tazilite thought, the concepts of philosophical Sufism usually acceptable because the flow of Sufism is growing rapidly bermazhab area of Shiite Muslims and or Mu'tazilite. (Http:// That the reason why philosophical Sufism is often also named or attributed to the 'Sufism Syi'i'.

View 'union mysticism' is what form the basic conception of philosophical Sufism and inspired many of the Sufis or Sufi philosophical bermazhab-philosopher to formulate and give birth to works of Sufism philosophical thinking, ( famous of them is Ibn Arabi, Ibn Syab'in, Al Jilli, etc..

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